Did you know…

There are people alive today that are older than the discovered existence of the neutron.
It was discovered in 1933 by James Chadwick (1891-1974), only 81 years ago.

 

 

CIE simple atomic structure slides

Here you go… A Cambridge powerpoint that covers some of the first few topics.

atomic_structure_presentation[1]

it’s in the “new” pptx format. If you have an older version of powerpoint, you may need to install a converter to read the pptx file (and docx etc files also).. Does anyone have a problem reading pptx files? I imagine you all have the “new” versions of powerproint.

p.s. there are other independent programs out there that can also read them, like the free (And very powerful) OpenOffice

Reaction of acid with metal oxide. How many H+ is needed?

Reaction of acid with metal oxide. How many H+ is needed?

Oxides contain the O­2- anion, in other words an oxygen atom that has gained 2 electrons. O gains these electrons from the metal when forming the oxide. Metals give away electrons. That’s one of their characteristics. This means for every O atom, the metal atoms must have given away two electrons.

Examples of metal oxides:

Na2O (sodium oxide) – Na forms a +1 ion so to balance one O2- there must be two Na atoms needed.

MgO (magnesium oxide) – One Mg can give 2e- so only one Mg was needed to supply both e- to the O2-.

Al­2O3 (aluminium oxide) – Here there are three O2- atoms, so a total of 6 e- had to be supplied by the metal. Al forms a +3 ion so two Al atoms were needed to provide this, hence the formula.

MnO2 (manganese dioxide, dark brown, almost black insoluble solid) We have two O atoms, hence need a metal that can give away 4 e-. Transition metals are special in that they are able to give away many electrons.

 

So the number of O atoms dictates the number of metal atoms, M, that we need, but the number of M atoms needed also depends on the charge that the metal ion can make.

 

So for any metal oxide, we can assign the general formula MxOy the total negative charge needed to be balanced by the metal is 2y (each O has a double charge).

So for x metal atoms, the average charge on each metal ion must be:

 

(total negative charge ÷ No. of metal atoms)

 i.e.

(2y ÷ x)

 

Reaction of acid (abbreviated to H+) with metal oxides sees metal oxides to form hydrated metal ions and H2O.
You may be interested to know reaction of metal oxide with just water, produces hydroxides instead.

The O in from H2O comes from the O2- . For every O present in the metal oxide, 2 H+ are required. So the number of H necessary is also = 2y.

 

Al2O3 therefore needs 6 H+(aq) and produces 2 Al3+(aq) and 3 H2O(l)

 

Here’s one or two equations for Junior students (Aug 2014) intake to balance

1(g)2015

There’s 263 actually.

They come from the very good commercial site: http://www.chembuddy.com/. It’s commercial, but there is a lot of trial and free stuff there (please note I have absolutely no connection in any way to it – other than me being a chemist!).

Advice. Generally, as you go down the list, the equations become bit harder. Why not choose say number 1, 25, 50, 75…. 250 to start with. Then if you want more practice, try 2, 26, 51, 76… 251   and so on.
If you want to check you answer, type it out in the comments section for me to comment on.

OK, get cracking 🙂

  1. NaH2PO4 -> NaPO3 + H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  2. H2CO3 -> H2O + CO2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  3. BaSO4 + H2SO4 -> Ba(HSO4)2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  4. CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  5. CaO + H2O -> Ca(OH)2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  6. H2SO3 -> H2O + SO2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  7. H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2 -> CaHPO4.2H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  8. NaPO3 + CuO -> NaCuPO4          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  9. SO3 + H2O -> H2SO4          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  10. Be(OH)2 -> BeO + H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  11. BaO + H2O -> Ba(OH)2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  12. Na2SO3 + S -> Na2S2O3          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  13. SO2 + H2O -> H2SO3          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  14. Li2O + H2O -> LiOH
  15. Na2HPO4 -> Na4P2O7 + H2O
  16. H4As2O7 -> As2O5 + H2O
  17. CaC2 + N2 -> CaCN2 + C          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  18. Mg(OH)2 -> (MgOH)2O + H2O
  19. HAsO3 -> As2O5 + H2O
  20. KHSO4 -> K2S2O7 + H2O
  21. H3PO4 -> H4P2O7 + H2O
  22. NaCl + NH4HCO3 -> NaHCO3 + NH4Cl          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  23. HAsO2 -> As2O3 + H2O
  24. UO3 + H2 -> UO2 + H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  25. CdSO4 + H2S -> CdS + H2SO4          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  26. HIO3 -> I2O5 + H2O
  27. Ca(HCO3)2 -> CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  28. FeS + H2SO4 -> H2S + FeSO4          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  29. (NH4)2SO4 + CaCO3 -> (NH4)2CO3 + CaSO4          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  30. Hg2CO3 -> Hg + HgO + CO2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  31. CaSO4 -> CaS + O2
  32. BeF2 + Mg -> MgF2 + Be          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  33. Mg + N2 -> Mg3N2
  34. SiO2 + Ca(OH)2 -> CaSiO3 + H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  35. K2O + H2O -> KOH
  36. C + H2O -> CO + H2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  37. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 -> Ca(HCO3)2
  38. N2O3 + H2O -> HNO2
  39. SiO2 + Na2CO3 -> Na2SiO3 + CO2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  40. BaO2 + H2SO4 -> BaSO4 + H2O2          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  41. Na2Cr2O7 + S -> Cr2O3 + Na2SO4          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  42. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 -> CaCO3 + H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  43. Fe2O3 + SiO2 -> Fe2Si2O7
  44. CO2 + NH3 + H2O -> NH4HCO3          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  45. Na2O + H2O -> NaOH
  46. NH4NO3 -> N2O + H2O
  47. N2O5 + H2O -> HNO3
  48. CaS + H2O -> Ca(OH)2 + H2S
  49. Al(OH)3 + NaOH -> NaAlO2 + H2O
  50. (CuOH)2CO3 -> CuO + CO2 + H2O          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  51. SrBr2 + (NH4)2CO3 -> SrCO3 + NH4Br
  52. H2O2 -> H2O + O2
  53. Ca(ClO3)2 -> CaCl2 + O2
  54. PCl5 + H2O -> POCl3 + HCl
  55. Zn + KOH -> K2ZnO2 + H2
  56. Al2O3 + Na2CO3 -> NaAlO2 + CO2
  57. PCl5 + KNO2 -> NOCl + POCl3 + KCl          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  58. Zn + HCl -> ZnCl2 + H2
  59. BeO + C + Cl2 -> BeCl2 + CO          —> Ignore. Already balanced!
  60. AgBr + Na2S2O3 -> Na3[Ag(S2O3)2] + NaBr
  61. N2 + O2 -> N2O
  62. BeSO4 + NH4OH -> Be(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4
  63. Cu(CN)2 -> CuCN + C2N2
  64. SiC + Cl2 -> SiCl4 + C
  65. NH3 + O2 -> HNO3 + H2O
  66. Fe2(C2O4)3 -> FeC2O4 + CO2
  67. H2 + O2 -> H2O
  68. K + Br2 -> KBr
  69. CO + O2 -> CO2
  70. HNO2 + O2 -> HNO3
  71. O2 -> O3
  72. NaHCO3 -> Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
  73. CO2 + NH3 -> OC(NH2)2 + H2O
  74. Xe + F2 -> XeF6
  75. MnS + HCl -> H2S + MnCl2
  76. CaC2 + H2O -> C2H2 + Ca(OH)2
  77. ClO2 + H2O -> HClO2 + HClO3
  78. CuSO4 + KCN -> Cu(CN)2 + K2SO4
  79. NaOH + FeSO4 -> Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2
  80. Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 -> CaHPO4 + H2O
  81. PbCrO4 + HNO3 -> Pb(NO3)2 + H2CrO4
  82. HgO -> Hg + O2
  83. (CN)2 + NaOH -> NaCN + NaOCN + H2O
  84. BaCO3 + HNO3 -> Ba(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O
  85. H3AsO4 -> As2O5 + H2O
  86. CaO + C -> CaC2 + CO
  87. Zn(OH)2 + NaOH -> Na2ZnO2 + H2O
  88. HNO3 + P2O5 -> N2O5 + HPO3
  89. UF4 + Mg -> MgF2 + U
  90. Mn2O3 + Al -> Al2O3 + Mn
  91. MnO2 + K2CO3 + KNO3 -> K2MnO4 + KNO2 + CO2
  92. AlN + H2O -> NH3 + Al(OH)3
  93. Ca3(PO4)2 + H2SO4 -> CaSO4 + Ca(H2PO4)2
  94. S + N2O -> SO2 + N2
  95. N2 + H2 -> NH3
  96. CaCO3 + HCl -> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
  97. As2O3 + H2O -> H3AsO3
  98. Be(OH)2 + NH4HF2 -> (NH4)2BeF4 + H2O
  99. NaOH + Zn(NO3)2 -> NaNO3 + Zn(OH)2
  100. MgNH4PO4 -> Mg2P2O7 + NH3 + H2O
  101. H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2 -> Ca(H2PO4)2 + H2O
  102. [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + HNO3 -> NH4NO3 + AgCl
  103. CaS + H2O -> Ca(HS)2 + Ca(OH)2
  104. Cu + CO2 + O2 + H2O -> CuCO3.Cu(OH)2
  105. (NH4)2BeF4 -> BeF2 + NH3 + HF
  106. Sn(OH)2 + NaOH -> Na2SnO2 + H2O
  107. NH4VO3 -> V2O5 + NH3 + H2O
  108. H3AsO3 -> As2O3 + H2O
  109. NaCl + H2SO4 -> Na2SO4 + HCl
  110. Fe(OH)3 -> Fe2O3 + H2O
  111. As2O5 + H2O -> H3AsO4
  112. NaOH + Cl2 -> NaCl + NaClO + H2O
  113. VO2Cl + NH4OH -> NH4VO3 + NH4Cl + H2O
  114. B2O3 + H2O -> H3BO3
  115. CH4 + O2 -> CO2 +H2O
  116. SiH4 + O2 -> SiO2 + H2O
  117. TiCl4 + Mg -> MgCl2 + Ti
  118. Pb(OH)2 + NaOH -> Na2PbO2 + H2O
  119. Si + NaOH + H2O -> Na2SiO3 + H2
  120. Si + S8 -> Si2S4
  121. CaS2 + O2 -> CaS2O3
  122. Na2SnO3 + H2S -> SnS2 + NaOH + H2O
  123. Na2S2 + O2 -> Na2S2O3
  124. (NH4)2Cr2O7 -> Cr2O3 + N2 + H2O
  125. HCl + K2CO3 -> KCl + H2O + CO2
  126. KClO3 -> KCl + O2
  127. Zn + NaOH + H2O -> Na2Zn(OH)4 + H2
  128. Na2CO3 + HCl -> NaCl + H2O + CO2
  129. Ca(OH)2 + P4O10 + H2O -> Ca(H2PO4)2
  130. CaS + H2O + CO2 -> Ca(HCO3)2 + H2S
  131. Sn(OH)4 + NaOH -> Na2SnO3 + H2O
  132. Na + H2O -> NaOH + H2
  133. Ca3(PO4)2 + SiO2 -> CaSiO3 + P2O5
  134. FeCl3 + NH4OH -> Fe(OH)3 + NH4Cl
  135. H3PO3 -> H3PO4 + PH3
  136. AlCl3 + AgNO3 -> AgCl + Al(NO3)3
  137. KOH + AlCl3 -> KCl + Al(OH)3
  138. H2SO4 + NaHCO3 -> Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O
  139. SiO2 + HF -> SiF4 + H2O
  140. CaCN2 + H2O -> CaCO3 + NH3
  141. HCl + HNO3 -> NOCl + Cl2 + H2O
  142. KClO3 -> KClO4 + KCl
  143. P4 + O2 -> P2O5
  144. P4O10 + HCl -> POCl3 + HPO3
  145. Sb + O2 -> Sb4O6
  146. NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 -> CaCl2 + NH3 + H2O
  147. KBr + Al(ClO4)3 -> AlBr3 + KClO4
  148. AgNO3 + FeCl3 -> Fe(NO3)3 + AgCl
  149. Ca3(PO4)2 + H3PO4 -> Ca(H2PO4)2
  150. POCl3 + H2O -> H3PO4 + HCl
  151. C2H5OH + O2 -> CO + H2O
  152. UO2 + HF -> UF4 + H2O
  153. Ag2S + KCN -> KAg(CN)2 + K2S
  154. C + SiO2 + Cl2 -> SiCl4 + CO
  155. PCl3 + H2O -> H3PO3 + HCl
  156. H3PO4 + (NH4)2MoO4 + HNO3 -> (NH4)3PO4.12MoO3 + NH4NO3 + H2O
    CORRECTION: H3PO4 + (NH4)2MoO4 + HNO3 -> (NH4)3PO4.Mo12O40 + NH4NO3 + H2O
    Due to the hard work of Desmond Chai Wei Hao, the error was been uncovered. My respect to him 🙂
  157. MnO2 + HCl -> MnCl2 + H2O + Cl2
  158. Fe2O3 + C -> CO + Fe
  159. PCl5 + P2O5 -> POCl3
  160. FeO + H3PO4 -> Fe3(PO4)2 + H2O
  161. Ca(NO3)2 -> CaO + NO2 + O2
  162. Fe + O2 -> Fe2O3
  163. Fe2O3 + H2 -> Fe + H2O
  164. FeSO4 + K3[Fe(CN)6] -> Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2 + K2SO4
  165. NH3 + O2 -> HNO2 + H2O
  166. Al + O2 -> Al2O3
  167. BaCl2 + Al2(SO4)3 -> BaSO4 + AlCl3
  168. Fe2(SO4)3 + Ba(NO3)2 -> BaSO4 + Fe(NO3)3
  169. Au2S3 + H2 -> Au + H2S
  170. Au + HCl + HNO3 -> AuCl3 + NO + H2O
  171. NiS + O2 -> NiO + SO2
  172. Al + FeO -> Al2O3 + Fe
  173. C2H5OH + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
  174. Na2O2 + H2O -> NaOH + O2
  175. Fe2O3 + CO -> Fe + CO2
  176. Pb(NO3)2 -> PbO + NO2 + O2
  177. Al2(SO4)3 + Ca(OH)2 -> CaSO4 + Al(OH)3
  178. Au2O3 -> Au + O2
  179. Ca3(PO4)2 + H2SO4 -> CaSO4 + H3PO4
  180. SiCl4 + H2O -> H4SiO4 + HCl
  181. Ca + AlCl3 -> CaCl2 + Al
  182. FeCl3 + Ca(OH)2 -> CaCl2 + Fe(OH)3
  183. Al2O3 + C + N2 -> AlN + CO
  184. NO + NaOH -> NaNO2 + H2O + N2O
  185. Pb3O4 + HNO3 -> Pb(NO3)2 + PbO2 + H2O
  186. CuSO4 + KCN -> CuCN + K2SO4 + C2N2
  187. KO2 + CO2 -> K2CO3 + O2
  188. P4O6 -> P4 + P2O4
  189. P4O10 + H2O -> H3PO4
  190. Al + KOH + H2O -> KAlO2 + H2
  191. Fe + H2O + O2 -> Fe2O3.H2O
  192. H3PO4 + HCl -> PCl5 + H2O
  193. MnO2 + KOH + O2 -> K2MnO4 + H2O
  194. K2CO3 + C + N2 -> KCN + CO
  195. PCl5 + H2O -> H3PO4 + HCl
  196. P4O6 + H2O -> H3PO3
  197. Al(OH)3 + H2SO4 -> Al2(SO4)3 + H2O
  198. Fe2(SO4)3 + KOH -> K2SO4 + Fe(OH)3
  199. Bi(NO3)3 + H2S -> Bi2S3 + HNO3
  200. V2O5 + HCl -> VOCl3 + H2O
  201. Cr(OH)3 + H2SO4 -> Cr2(SO4)3 + H2O
  202. Hg(OH)2 + H3PO4 -> Hg3(PO4)2 + H2O
  203. Fe + H2O -> Fe3O4 + H2
  204. Ca3P2 + H2O -> Ca(OH)2 + PH3
  205. H2SO4 + Al(OH)3 -> Al2(SO4)3 + H2O
  206. Al(NO3)3 + Na2CO3 -> Al2(CO3)3 + NaNO3
  207. K2MnO4 + H2SO4 -> KMnO4 + MnO2 + K2SO4 + H2O
  208. Na3AsO3 + H2S -> As2S3 + NaOH
  209. Mg3N2 + H2O -> Mg(OH)2 + NH3
  210. Fe3O4 + H2 -> Fe + H2O
  211. C2H2 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
  212. (NH4)2Cr2O7 -> NH3 + H2O + Cr2O3 + O2
  213. C3H8 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
  214. As + NaOH -> Na3AsO3 + H2
  215. H3BO3 + Na2CO3 -> Na2B4O7 + CO2 + H2O
  216. Al + HCl -> AlCl3 + H2
  217. V2O5 + Ca -> CaO + V
  218. H3BO3 -> H4B6O11 + H2O
  219. Na2B4O7 + HCl + H2O -> NaCl + H3BO3
  220. Pb + Na + C2H5Cl -> Pb(C2H5)4 + NaCl
  221. C2H3Cl + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + HCl
  222. CaHPO4.2H2O + NaOH + H2O -> Na2HPO4.12H2O + Ca(OH)2
  223. Ca3(PO4)2 + SiO2 -> P4O10 + CaSiO3
  224. Se + NaOH -> Na2Se + Na2SeO3 + H2O
  225. Al + NaOH + H2O -> NaAl(OH)4 + H2
  226. K3AsO4 + H2S -> As2S5 + KOH + H2O
  227. I2 + HNO3 -> HIO3 + NO2 + H2
  228. Al + NH4ClO4 -> Al2O3 + AlCl3 + NO + H2O
  229. FeS + O2 -> Fe2O3 + SO2
  230. Ca3(PO4)2 + C -> Ca3P2 + CO
  231. FeC2O4⋅2H2O + H2C2O4 + H2O2 + K2C2O4 -> K3[Fe(C2O4)3]⋅3H2O
  232. MgNH4AsO4.6H2O -> Mg2As2O7 + NH3 + H2O
  233. H2SO4 + HI -> H2S + I2 + H2O
  234. U3O8 + HNO3 -> UO2(NO3)2 + NO2 + H2O
  235. (NH4)3AsS4 + HCl -> As2S5 + H2S + NH4Cl
  236. Pb3(VO4)2.PbCl2 + HCl -> VO2Cl + PbCl2 + H2O
  237. NH3 + O2 -> NO + H2O
  238. Hg2CrO4 -> Cr2O3 + Hg + O2
  239. Al4C3 + H2O -> CH4 + Al(OH)3
  240. Ca10F2(PO4)6 + H2SO4 -> Ca(H2PO4)2 + CaSO4 + HF
  241. Ca5F(PO4)3 + H2SO4 -> Ca(H2PO4)2 + CaSO4 + HF
  242. UO2(NO3)2.6H2O -> UO3 + NO2 + O2 + H2O
  243. S8 + O2 -> SO3
  244. NH3 + NO -> N2 + H2O
  245. HClO4 + P4O10 -> H3PO4 + Cl2O7
  246. Au + KCN + O2 + H2O -> K[Au(CN)2] + KOH
  247. CO2 + H2O -> C6H12O6 + O2
  248. V2O5 + Al -> Al2O3 + V
  249. FeS2 + O2 -> Fe2O3 + SO2
  250. Si2H3 + O2 -> SiO2 + H2O
  251. P4 + H2O -> H3PO4 + H2
  252. H2S + Cl2 -> S8 + HCl
  253. C4H10 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
  254. Ca3(PO4)2 + SiO2 + C -> CaSiO3 + P4 + CO
  255. C6H6 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
  256. C10H16 + Cl2 -> C + HCl
  257. C7H6O2 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
  258. C7H16 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
  259. C7H10N + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + NO2
  260. KNO3 + C12H22O11 -> N2 + CO2 + H2O + K2CO3
  261. K4Fe(CN)6 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 -> KHSO4 + Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + HNO3 + CO2 + H2O
  262. K3[Fe(SCN)6] + Na2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 -> Fe(NO3)3 + Cr2(SO4)3 + CO2 + H2O + Na2SO4 + KNO3
  263. K4[Fe(SCN)6] + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(SO4)3 + Cr2(SO4)3 + CO2 + H2O + K2SO4 + KNO3

Structure / Exams overview for CIE A-level (AS and A2) Chemistry 2015

Source by Papers to be taken - table

(click to expand if necessary)

Paper 1 This paper will consist of 40 questions, thirty of the direct choice type and ten of the multiple completion type, all with four options. All questions will be based on the AS syllabus. Candidates will answer all questions.
Paper 2 This paper will consist of a variable number of structured questions of variable mark value.
All questions will be based on the AS syllabus. Candidates will answer all questions. Candidates will answer on the question paper.
Paper 3 – Advanced Practical Skills 1/2. In some examination sessions, two versions of the Advanced Practical Skills paper will be available, identified as Advanced Practical Skills 1 and Advanced Practical Skills 2, hence the terminology “Advanced Practical Skills 1/2”. In other sessions only Advanced Practical Skills 1 will be available.
These papers will be equivalent and each candidate will be required to take only one of them. KYUEM students are likely onto to take the first as we the numbers of our students is maintained at a small level. The existence of two papers is to allow large Centres to split candidates into two groups: one group will take Advanced Practical Skills 1, the other group will take Advanced Practical Skills 2. Each of these papers will be timetabled on a different day.
Each paper will consist of two or three experiments drawn from different areas of chemistry.
The examiners will not be restricted by the subject content. Candidates will answer all questions. Candidates will answer on the question paper. See the Practical Assessment section of the syllabus for full details.
Paper 4 This paper will consist of two sections.
Section A (70 marks) will consist of questions based on the A2 core syllabus but is not restricted to the A2 syllabus and may include material first encountered in the AS syllabus.
Section B (30 marks) will consist of questions based on Section 11 (of the syllabus) “Applications of Chemistry” but may include material first encountered in the core (AS and A2) syllabus.
Both sections will consist of a variable number of structured and free response style questions of variable mark value. Candidates will answer all questions. Candidates will answer on the question paper.
Paper 5 This paper will consist of a variable number of questions of variable mark value based on the practical skills of planning, analysis and evaluation. The examiners will not be restricted by the subject content.
Candidates will answer all questions. Candidates will answer on the question paper. I think it’s fair to say that much of this paper is a written examination of practical information/skills.

A2 papers (papers 4 and 5) will also cover AS material, so you MUST not forget your AS material! (this is fully understandable because the AS contains a lot of fundamental knowledge upon which A2 is built on, so the A2 content is obviously connected to AS)

The statement “The examiners will not be restricted by the subject content.” means that examiners can ask you about aspects of chemistry not mentioned in the syllabus, but you can apply your skills and knowledge gainsed on the course to these ‘unknown’ areas. For example a medicinal drug may be given that you’ve never seen before, but you should be able to identify its functional groups, and hence have a good understanding how it can react as you will have studied the reactions of those functional groups in the course.

 

Section 11, “Applications of Chemistry”, which will be covered in paper 4, will likely contain environmental based topics.  It’s likely an unfamiliar scientific concept/issue will be presented and you have to apply your knowledge and skills gained from this course to discuss/answer various parts of it.

A booklet covering Applications of Chemistry can be purchased from Cambridge or obtained free of charge from Cambridge’s Teacher Support site http://teachers.cie.org.uk

 

graphical breakdown - overview AS and A2 CIE 2015 exams

(click to expand if necessary)